500-579 or No Score
ot applicable. Borrowers with minimum decision credit scores below 580, or with no credit score may not exceed 31/43 ratios.
Energy Efficient Homes may have stretch ratios of 33/45
There is specific criteria that HUD, VA, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, as well as other agencies and investors have for determining if a borrower is qualified for the loan. The criteria applies when evaluating any loan for creditworthiness, and PRMG applies it to all products. When making the decision to lend, the lender must consider what is referred to as the 4Cs of underwriting.
THE 4 CS
* CHARACTER (Credit)
* CAPACITY (Income)
* CAPITAL (Assets)
* COLLATERAL (Value)
* CHARACTER (Credit)
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Residential lender Paramount Residential Mortgage, a premier mortgage lender wants you to know that it is the responsibility of the mortgage lender to review the borrower’s overall credit history to make a sound judgement regarding their attitude towards the use of credit. To help homebuyers understand how the bank determines how credit is used, the following guidelines will outline this for you. Except for products that allow no credit score, all borrowers must have a valid credit score. The score must be accompanied by sufficient credit lines. Insufficient lines include (authorized user accounts, deferred student loans, co-signed accounts, derogatory or disputed credit lines)
For products that allow borrowers with no credit score, alternative documentation (nontraditional credit) to support the borrowers use of credit, as described in the product profiles, is required.
In general, there are no minimum traditional (credit reported directly to the credit bureaus) trade line requirements with an AUS Approve/Eligible. You must always meet the requirements as listed on the AUS approval. However, always refer to specific program guidelines for any additional requirements.
Do the borrowers have a documented work history with stability and sufficient income to meet monthly obligations?
Qualifying income should be stable, predictable, and likely to continue. The underwriter must determine that the borrower demonstrates the financial wherewithal to repay the mortgage loan as well as other obligations. In determining stable income, underwriters must be able to conclude that the income is likely to continue for the next three years.
When evaluating the borrower’s capacity, consider the following factors:
• Payment shock
• Income stability
• Debt ratios
• History of savings
Do the borrowers have sufficient assets to cover the costs of the loan? Documentation must be reviewed to ensure large deposits are handled in compliance with the agencies, NSF are considered when reviewing the overall loan risk, deposits on bank statements support income, social security, pension, etc. used in the loan file. Review statements for any undisclosed debts that are being paid, large withdrawals, etc. Additionally, when reviewing assets, the underwriter must confirm the
borrower has sufficient “capital” capacity to meet the closing cost obligations. The underwriter must check the borrower’s current balances and recent statements for any bank accounts, including checking and savings, confirming that the required funds and reserves are available.
Does the property meet the agency minimum standards and is the value determination supported? The appraisal must be reviewed to ensure any agency requirements are met. Underwriters need to determine the value and type of property being financed. It is important for the Underwriter to confirm that the loan amount does not exceed a property’s value. If the borrower owes more than the property is worth, the lender may not be able to recover a loan’s unpaid balance, in the case of a default (or the borrower does not make their payments as agreed). Additionally, automated tools such as the appraisal’s Submission Summary Report (SSR) and Fannie Mae’s Collateral Underwriter (CU) should be reviewed for conventional and FHA, if needed. Desk or field review should be ordered when there is concern in the value or when required due to red flags or program requirements. VA requires use of the LoanSafe Appraisal Manager (LSAM) report for each appraisal and the underwriter must review and ensure the value is supported.
Please note that TOTAL Scorecard/DU/LP/GUS are tools to support prudent underwriting decisions. An automated approval does not mean that additional documentation may not be required to justify and support the underwriting decision. There are many aspects of a loan file that the automated engine cannot see and properly analyze. As stated above, The mortgage company’s underwriting team is responsible for determining the borrowers meet the 4Cs.
Some examples (but not limited to) items that
would be a cause for concern are:
• Additional debt not disclosed on the credit report;
• NSF charges on bank statements showing the borrower has difficulty managing their finances;
• Multiple job changes with different career fields, declining income, gaps in employment;
• Minimal or no housing expenses and total obligations with no demonstrated savings ability;
Each loan must be looked at individually on its own merit. We are expected to look at the risk factors and recognize that multiple layers of risk within a file may be cause to decline the loan request.
Many lenders including Paramount Residential Mortgage do not allow manual underwrites on all products, please refer to the product profiles for specific requirements. When performing a manual underwrite, the underwriter must ensure that all agency and product profile guidelines are met and that the loan is a good credit risk. Often, manual underwrites will require additional documentation that is not required when using an AUS approval, so it is imperative to review agency guidelines and product profiles for all requirements.
The same factors that are
analyzed with an AUS approval must also be analyzed with a manual underwrite. Refer to your lenders product profiles to determine credit scores, credit profiles and maximum ratios. See below for PRMG’s guidelines and when a manual underwrite is allowed.
Additionally, for FHA loans, the requirements as outlined 4000.1 FHA Single Family Housing Policy Handbook must be met. These include additional reserve and ratios requirements. Reserve requirements are based on the number of units and ratio requirements are based on borrower credit scores. Ratios are only allowed to be exceeded as outlined by HUD with acceptable compensating
factors. The allowable compensating factors vary depending on the credit score and credit profile of the borrower.
HUD RESERVE REQUIREMENTS
All manually underwritten loans must meet or exceed the following minimum reserve requirements:
• 1 and 2 Unit Properties. Reserves must equal or exceed one total monthly mortgage payment.
• 3 and 4 Unit Properties. Reserves must equal or exceed three total monthly mortgage payments.
Reserves are defined as:
• the sum of verified and documented borrower funds; minus
• the sum the borrower is required to pay at closing, including the cash investment, closing costs, prepaid expenses, any payoffs that are a condition of loan approval, and any other expense required to close the loan; but not including
• the amount of cash taken at settlement in cash-out transactions or incidental cash received at settlement in other loan transactions, gift funds in excess of the amount required for the cash investment and other expenses, equity in another property, and borrowed funds from any source.
Reserves do not include:
• the amount of cash taken at settlement in cash-out transactions;
• incidental cash received at settlement in other loan transactions;
• gift funds;
• equity in another Property; or
• borrowed funds from any source
For FHA, the following Maximum Qualifying Ratio Matrix is the matrix published by HUD. However, PRMG have overlays to ratio requirements, and must refer to the product profiles for specific requirements. Additionally, the underwriter should refer directly to the 4000.1 Handbook published by HUD to ensure all of HUD’s requirements are met.
Lowest Minimum Decision Credit Score
Maximum Qualifying Ratios %
Acceptable Qualifying Factors
500-579 or No Score
Not applicable. Borrowers with minimum decision credit scores below 580, or with no credit score may not exceed 31/43 ratios.
Energy Efficient Homes may have stretch ratios of 33/45
580 and above
No compensating factors required.
Energy Efficient Homes may have stretch ratios of 33/45.
580 and above
One of the following: • verified and documented cash Reserves; • minimal increase in housing payment; or • residual income
580 and above
No discretionary debt (PRMG does not allow this option)
580 and above
Two of the following: • verified and documented cash Reserves; • minimal increase in housing payment; • significant additional income not reflected in Effective Income; and/or • residual income.
Compensating factors that are used to support the underwriting decision must be recorded in the Underwriter Comments section of Form HUD-92900-LT, FHA Loan Underwriting and Transmittal Summary. Documentation supporting the compensating factors used must be included in the endorsement case binder including, if applicable, a worksheet attached to Form HUD-92900-LT reflecting the calculation of residual income. Be sure to refer to HUD’s requirements for information on calculating residual income, reserve calculations and additional information regarding compensating factors.
Refer to the specific agency when looking at acceptable compensating factors.
Compensating factors as published by HUD for FHA loans:
Compensating Factors Documentation Required to Support the Compensating Factors Verified and Documented Cash Reserves.
Verified and Documented Cash Reserves
Verified and documented cash Reserves may be cited as a compensating factor subject to the following requirements. • Reserves are equal to or exceed three total monthly Mortgage Payments (one and two units); or • Reserves are equal to or exceed six total monthly Mortgage Payments (three and four units). Reserves are calculated as the Borrower’s total assets as described in Asset Requirements less: • the total funds required to close the Mortgage; • gifts; • borrowed funds; and • cash received at closing in a cash-out refinance transaction or incidental cash received at closing in the mortgage transaction.
Minimal Increase in Housing Payment
Minimal Increase in Housing Payment A minimal increase in housing payment may be cited as a compensating factor subject to the following requirements: • the new total monthly Mortgage Payment does not exceed the current total monthly housing payment by more than $100 or 5 percent, whichever is less; and • there is a documented 12-month housing payment history with no more than one 30 Day late payment. In cash-out transactions all payments on the Mortgage being refinanced must have been made within the month due for the previous 12 months. • If the Borrower has no current housing payment Mortgagees may not cite this compensating factor. The Current Total Monthly Housing Payment refers to the Borrower’s current total Mortgage Payment or current total monthly rent obligation. No
Significant Additional Income Not Reflected in Gross Effective Income
Income Not Reflected in Gross Effective Income
Additional income from Overtime, Bonuses, Part-Time or Seasonal Employment that is not reflected in Effective Income can be cited as a compensating factor subject to the following requirements: • the Mortgagee must verify and document that the Borrower has received this income for at least one year, and it will likely continue; and • the income, if it were included in gross Effective Income, is sufficient to reduce the qualifying ratios to not more than 37/47. Income from non-borrowing spouses or other parties not obligated for the Mortgage may not be counted under this criterion. This compensating factor may be cited only in conjunction with another compensating factor when qualifying ratios exceed 37/47 but are not more than 40/50.
Residual income may be cited as a compensating factor provided it can be documented and it is at least equal to the applicable amounts for household size and geographic region found on the Table of Residual Incomes by Region found in VA Pamphlet 26-7. See HUD Handbook 4000.1 for information on calculating Residual Income as allowed by HUD, however if using residual income as one of the compensating factors, in addition to the deductions listed in the 4000.1, underwriter must also include “all other debts on the credit report.”
Compensating factors as published by VA for VA loans:
Compensating factors may affect the loan decision. These factors are especially important when reviewing loans which are marginal with respect to residual income or debt-to-income ratio. They cannot be used to compensate for unsatisfactory credit.
Valid compensating factors should represent unusual strengths rather than mere satisfaction of basic program requirements. For example, the fact that an applicant has sufficient assets for closing purposes, or meets the residual income guideline, is not a compensating factor.
Valid compensating factors should logically be able to compensate (to some extent) for the identified weakness in the loan. For example, significant liquid assets may compensate for a residual income shortfall whereas long-term employment would not.
Compensating factors include, but are not limited to the following:
• excellent credit history, • conservative use of consumer credit, • minimal consumer debt, • long-term employment, • significant liquid assets, • sizable down payment, • the existence of equity in refinancing loans, • little or no increase in shelter expense, • military benefits, • satisfactory homeownership experience, • high residual income, • low debt-to-income ratio, • tax credits for child care, and • tax benefits of home ownership.
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The changes in financing options available for residential investment properties over the last 5 years are staggering. Lenders have relaxed the credit and income guidelines